What is recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)?
Now a day’s many of the fertilized oocytes are ending with miscarriages and they are mostly occurring at the time prior to menses. If the woman is experiencing three or more losses at the time of the first trimester, then it is regarded as the Recurrent Pregnancy Loss RPL. It is highly recommended to evaluate the reasons for the losses if continuous two miscarriages occur. Pregnancy can be easily seen in ultrasound as early as 5-6 weeks gestational age. This bio chemical loss can be easily detected with a urine or blood test.
What are the causes of RPL?
There are many reasons that may cause more than one miscarriage.
This is the important factor that causes early miscarriages in the first 3 months of pregnancy. This is mainly due to the genetic abnormalities in the embryo or fetus. These miscarriages are happen due to the lack of chromosomes or due to extra chromosomes. The normal count of chromosomes is 46 that help in normal development. Down syndrome baby has 47 chromosomes. Up to 47% of miscarriage cases are due to the chromosome abnormalities. In most of the women, 10-15% of miscarriages occur at the age of 35 and more than 50% in women with age 40 years, which is a age factor infertility.
Sometimes, the shape of the women uterus also causes miscarriage. Septum is a kind of band tissue that is present inside the uterus. Women born with spectrum will experiences more miscarriages. Fibroids a kind of muscle tumors of the uterus also results in the miscarriage, if they present near the uterine cavity.
The lifestyle of the women also shows its effect on the pregnancy. Smoking increases the risk of RPL, usage of cocaine also lead to miscarriage. Excessive alcohol and caffeine consumption also causes RPL. Being overweight has also linked with RPL as well as other pregnancy problems.
Thyroid and diabetes like untreated medical conditions can increase the risk for miscarriage, abnormalities of the immune system, blood clotting also results in RPL.
In some cases, doctors also cannot find the exact reason for losses. Many of them are due to genetic abnormalities.
Tests to discover RPL
- Normal blood test is used to find certain medical conditions like medical, immune, blood clotting conditions.
- Karyotype is a kind of special blood test used to detect the chromosomal defects in both the male and female partner.
- A special x-ray or ultrasounds are used to detect any abnormalities in the women uterus and its shape.
- If the tissue of miscarriage is available, it used to test genetic abnormalities.