Recent advancement in the IVF technology is offering child with no genetic disorders by selecting the correct and healthy embryo. In order to prevent the mitochondrial disorders from mother to child, researchers found a very advance and smart solution. Some mitochondrial disorders like babies born with muscular dystrophy, Leigh’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. that effects brain, hearth, eyes, muscles and digestive system of the baby.
These diseases are mainly caused due to the genetic mutations in mitochondria. This results in the blockage of food conversion and oxygen conversion into energy.
What is 3-parent IVF?
This process involves three people. A mother with mitochondrial disorder who is carrying harmful mutations need to proceed with egg donation process. These women often experiences miscarriages and stillbirths. Nucleus from DNA of the disorder mother has been taken out and transfer into an enucleated egg from another mother without such defects. Then it forms like a hybrid egg that carries the nuclear DNA of the mother to be and healthy mitochondria from the egg donor, can be fertilized in vitro with sperm from the spouse of the original mother and then finally implanted into a mom.
This technique has become successful and resulted in the birth of a healthy baby without any genetic disorders. But there are many legal, ethical and logistical issues in this process. Some researchers have concerns about the compatibility of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from two different donors, and others note that the combination could cause epigenetic alterations that affect gene expression. But this technique was used only in monkeys as a test and need to pursue human testing if all the issues about the treatment were solved and if the country allows it officially.
Three parents IVF is approved in UK but not yet approved in United stated due to the confusion whether thus might lead to any genetic defects. A few hospitals in US have taken license for this technology and this technology would not be accessible to socioeconomic class due to its high cost.